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Cryptography is essentially about constructing and analyzing protocols that block adversaries.
Prior to modern times, Cryptography was essentially Encryption: the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense.
Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering while incorporating various aspects of Information Security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. Cryptographic technology in the modern age is an essential tool for users who wish to remain anonymous, and as such has been classified as a weapon/criminalized by many governments to limit/prohibit Cryptographic Technology use/growth/export.
Cryptography Resources:
http://www.garykessler.net/library/crypto.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography