While the question is valid, the broadest ideal of open-source is to make all software open-sourced, including that which is used for profit.
Broadly, some strong-copyleft OSS licenses have a "viral" property, requiring prohibiting anything not under the same license from linking to that component, others are permissive or non-viral. The GPL and AGPL represent extreme virality, the LGPL is mostly non-viral, the MIT is strongly permissive, and public domain is absolutely permissive.
In my experience, the most common use of viral licenses is to dual-license the product. That is, companies will release the product under GPL for free, and also offer a paid commercial license. In some cases, the commercial version even requires per-user licensing. In effect, the GPL version serves as a free trial, protected from production use by its license, rather than some DRM scheme.
I currently architect software that is commercial in function, but, due to its critical nature, we maintain a strict open-source-only policy for all components not created in-house. Not a byte can go in unless we and others can inspect the line it's been compiled from. Having started my coding in the OSS community, I do my best to have this go both ways.
At the same time, the nature of our primary software renders the legal cost of assessing the risks in releasing its code prohibitive. We contribute to libraries and packages that we use, but can't open-source the complete product. In a perfect world we could and would - but there are products that are by their nature only useful to a closed list, like owners of specific hardware (such as aircraft), or entities with a special legal status. In such cases, "herd security" cannot be relied upon to weed out the vulnerabilities, because no external party is interested in reviewing or improving such narrowly-specific code.
This means that industries like ours can use MIT, Apache or LGPL components, but not GPL or AGPL. In all of the cases where we were interested in viral-licensed components, and where the creators were reachable to discuss licensing, they offered a paid license. Some of the times it was worth it, other times we updated non-viral OSS to our standards instead.
So, licenses that restrict corporate usage most often do so in order to sell it, not to prevent it. For that purpose, prohibition in spirit is meaningless if it's not done in letter.
The purpose of promoting open-source software is not always best served by choosing the most extreme copyleft license. The application needs to be considered. Some software exists in millions of copies, other can never possibly have more than one running instance. The most extreme licenses restrict their use cases to only one facet of the software world, while permissive or compromise licenses trade some risk of proprietization for enhanced applicability.