Interesting question. Traditionally, in the US the doctrine of first sale has held the that the copyright holders' right to control distribution of a particular copy is extinguished by the first sale of that copy. There is much ongoing discussion about the extent to which first-sale applies to digital assets; in Capitol Records v. ReDigi the court held that resale of digital music was not permitted by first-sale, but the argument turned on the way reselling digital music inevitably involved making a further copy, and that is not so in your case, where the digital asset is contained inside a (non-reproducible) physical asset. Similarly, in 2012 the ECJ held that
it is indeed permissible to resell software licenses even if the digital good has been downloaded directly from the Internet, and that the first sale doctrine applied whenever software was originally sold to a customer for an unlimited amount of time, as such sale involves a transfer of ownership, thus prohibiting any software maker from preventing the resale of their software by any of their legitimate owners
(summary from Wikipedia). So I can't find a completely dispositive answer, but the way I read it is that in many jurisdictions, the rights-holders' power to control ongoing distribution of a particular copy is extinguished by first sale. This includes the rights-holders' power to require that ongoing distribution take place under particular terms, including choice-of-licence and source-provision obligations. So as I read it, you can sell the box to your friend without worrying that you're giving him or her the right to turn around and demand source code that you don't even have.
Anyone thinking "ooh, I can get round the GPL by getting my friend to download a copy then selling it to me for £1, thus stripping the GPL from my copy" should note that even if that is so, you have neither the right to make multiple copies of, nor to modify, the copy you have thus acquired, since control of those is not extinguished by first-sale. All you have is the right to sell it on to someone else for £2, and good luck with that business model.