Are there any licenses that allow anyone to distribute the source code, but pre-compiled binaries can only be publicly distributed by the original developer?
Yes, and it's basically Red Hat's business model.
Anyone can get the sources for Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), thus satisfying Red Hat's obligations under the various versions of the GPL. However, you can only get the binaries buy buying a licence from Red Hat, at which point you are required to agree not to redistribute the binaries. This has not generally been felt to fall foul of the GPL, or any of the other free licences that apply to software in RHEL.
This only affects redistribution of your compiled binaries. You cannot prevent recipients of the source code from offering their pre-built binaries to the world, though you may require trademark material to be removed (hence, eg, CentOS).