There is no such license.
Instead of looking for a particular license, it might be better to look at a curated selection of free software. Debian is notable for rigorously checking the licensing of any software they package.
From a legal perspective, the problem is that an open source license is generally just an unilateral grant of rights from the author to the public. It doesn't really bind the author, unless the author is also a licensee of more upstream code.
Dependencies can take on a variety of forms. Depending on context, you might experience non-free dependencies as fine: Would you be OK using a non-free operating system? A non-free SaaS offering? A non-free library?
The GPL does have language that is relevant here. The GPL requires the complete corresponding source of a GPL-covered binary to be published under the GPL or a compatible license. But the exact effect of this is rather subtle:
- this does not bind the original author, but binds authors who are also licensees of upstream GPL-covered software
- the original author could always issue an exception to the GPL that allows linking with some non-free component, a bit like the LGPL or Classpath Exception
- this excludes system libraries or general purpose tools such as operating systems or compilers
- this excludes freely available software
- this only covers code that is part of the software
- it is not entirely clear when dependencies form a single software with the GPL-covered code
- the FSF thinks that dynamically linked libraries are part of the software
- but that is only about binaries
- in the source code, merely declaring a dependency likely doesn't count
- this means that it is possible for GPL-covered code to exists that can be distributed only in source form but not in binary form