The GPLv3 says
To “convey” a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies.
However, public display does not make a copy of the work, and I strongly expect that viewing a public display does not cause the viewer to "receive" the work, either (at least in the United States).
Furthermore, consider that "conveyance" is a kind of "propagation", which is defined as virtually anything that requires copyright permission:
To “propagate” a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy.
This is relevant in the United States since 17 USC §109(c) says of public display:
(c) ... the owner of a particular copy lawfully made under this title ... is entitled, without the authority of the copyright owner, to display that copy publicly, either directly or by the projection of no more than one image at a time, to viewers present at the place where the copy is located.)
Therefore if you are displaying a poster lawfully created under the GPL to physically-present people, that display does not require any permission from the copyright holder, so the act is neither propagation nor conveyance.
Also consider this GPL FAQ item:
If someone installs GPLed software on a laptop, and then lends that laptop to a friend without providing source code for the software, have they violated the GPL?
No. In the jurisdictions where we have investigated this issue, this sort of loan would not count as conveying. The laptop's owner would not have any obligations under the GPL.
If physically lending the work does not constitute coneyance, neither should we expect that making the work available for viewing (without any change of physical possession) constitutes conveyance either.