While not exactly a spot-on match, Creative Commons licenses effectively give this option. In CC-BY 4.0, for example, section 3(a)(3) states that attribution must be removed upon request:
If requested by the Licensor, You must remove any of the [attribution] information required by Section 3(a)(1)(A) to the extent reasonably practicable.
This mechanism in the CC licenses is intended to be used on a case-by-case basis when you see particular works that you object to, but you could use it broadly to object to your name being attached to any distribution or derivative whatsoever. This is further explained in the Creative Commons FAQ (emphasis mine in the second paragraph):
What can I do if I offer my material under a Creative Commons license and I do not like the way someone uses it?
As long as users abide by license terms and conditions, licensors cannot control how the material is used. However, CC licenses do provide several mechanisms that allow licensors to choose not to be associated with their material or to uses of their material with which they disagree.
First, all CC licenses prohibit using the attribution requirement to suggest that the licensor endorses or supports a particular use. Second, licensors may waive the attribution requirement, choosing not to be identified as the licensor, if they wish. Third, if the licensor does not like how the material has been modified or used, CC licenses require that the licensee remove the attribution information upon request. (In 3.0 and earlier, this is only a requirement for adaptations and collections; in 4.0, this also applies to the unmodified work.) Finally, anyone modifying licensed material must indicate that the original has been modified. This ensures that changes made to the original material--whether or not the licensor approves of them--are not attributed back to the licensor.
So, if you want to prohibit anything that makes it seems like you endorse a derivative, that prohibition is already present in CC licenses. If you want to prohibit any inclusion of your name whatsoever, you can say something general to the effect of
Do NOT include this copyright notice or other author information in derivative works based on this work.
By itself, this probably won't satisfy the condition that the licensee has been "requested by the Licensor" to remove the the attribution information. (In particular, if Alice gets a copy from you, and then Bob gets copy from Alice, Alice doesn't have an obligation to pass along that separate "no attribution on derivatives" request, so Bob can plausibly claim he never saw it.) However, if people do comply with the request in this notice, it will save you some legwork sending out requests to every person who makes a derivative. If you have to send a request directly to someone, and they fail to comply, then you may take (or at least threaten) legal action against them for noncompliance with the CC license terms.