The common understanding is to consider that contributions are made under the same license as the project these are contributed to (unless stated otherwise).
On GitHub, this is made explicit in the terms of service:
Whenever you make a contribution to a repository containing notice of a license, you license your contribution under the same terms, and you agree that you have the right to license your contribution under those terms. If you have a separate agreement to license your contributions under different terms, such as a contributor license agreement, that agreement will supersede.
Isn't this just how it works already? Yep. This is widely accepted as the norm in the open-source community; it's commonly referred to by the shorthand "inbound=outbound". We're just making it explicit.
When you accept a contribution, two things happen:
1. the contribution is under the existing project license
2. the copyright of this contribution is that of the contributor.
Therefore the copyright of the codebase as a whole is now shared between you and the contributor. (Though in practice there may be subtle things that have a legal meaning: for instance if I contribute a one-character typo fix, I do not have much a copyright ownership if any).
You can therefore either add the copyright of these authors or keep an authors file as you see fit to document this. A common practice is to use a "Copyright (c) the XXX authors" (or contributors) and list authors or not separately.
Now even though this documentation may have some legal meaning, even if not present the shared copyright is still there nonetheless.