If an original work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY 4.0), can an adapted work (i.e. derivative work) be made from it and published under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)?
Yes, because CC-BY 4.0 is a permissive license.
Permissive licenses in general are much easier to redistribute, usually all that's required is that you preserve the copyright notice. In CC-BY 4.0's case, you just need to provide attribution in one of many ways.
It's why not just CC-BY 4.0, but many permissively-licensed works can be included in proprietary ones.
The one thing you cannot do is take away the attribution requirement, for example by distributing under an even more permissive license, such as CC0.