In practice, no. When someone obtains a copy of an open source work from the author, the license is effectively a contract where the author allows the recipient to deal with the work in many ways including use, redistribution and modification. The author is not allowed to unilaterally terminate this contract.
The author is of course allowed to stop doing any maintenance, to pull down their servers, and generally stop supporting anyone still using or wishing to obtain the work. They're also allowed to make a derivative of the original work and to not distribute the derivative under an open source license¹. But as long as someone else has a copy of the open source version and is willing to redistribute it, the author cannot prevent that.
In theory, some jurisdictions allow the author of a work to rescind their work. This is a moral right, alongside the right to be recognized as the author and a few others, distinct from the economic rights (which are basically the right to control who may have copies of the work). US law has no moral rights. French law does, and in France, moral rights, unlike economic rights, cannot be contracted away (any contractual clause to this effect would be automatically void). For example, the author of a book may demand that the publisher stop distributing copies (though they cannot demand that buyers of the book turn their copies in). A painter may demand their painting back to destroy it. Of course the author must then compensate the publisher or the buyer of the painting for their loss, which makes rescinding difficult in practice. Continuing on French law, for software, unlike other forms of copyrighted works, there is no right to rescind unless explicitly mentioned in a contract.
The absence of a practical possibility of rescinding a work is one of the important aspects of open source licenses. The fact that the source code (i.e. the prefered form of modification) will always be available means that a user of the work will always be able to continue maintenance if the original author stops doing so under satisfactory conditions. This is sometimes known as the “fork test” for open source licenses: they guarantee that no matter what the original author does, someone else can adopt the project and maintain their own version of it.