Consider an executable program whose source is licensed under the MIT and/or Apache 2.0 license and that depends (directly & indirectly) on a number of libraries written by third parties that are each licensed under MIT and/or Apache 2.0. (By "licensed under MIT and/or Apache 2.0", I mean being licensed under terms that, when expressed as an SPDX license identifier, equal "MIT", "Apache-2.0", "MIT OR Apache-2.0", or "MIT AND Apache-2.0".) This program is compiled into a single statically-linked binary containing compiled copies of each dependency (i.e., dynamic linking is not involved, except possibly for core language or OS libraries) and distributed to end-users.
The main question is this: Must the distributor of the binary provide the license and copyright information for each individual dependency alongside the binary? Specifically, assuming the source code for each dependency includes one or more license and/or notice files containing the text of the dependency's license(s) plus copyright information, is it necessary to include each & every one of these license/notice files alongside the binary — either as separate files (possibly organized in a directory tree) or in a single structured file? Are there other ways to satisfy the licenses' attribution requirements?