In this specific example, the text "I publish this image under an open source CC-BY license on my website" is below the threshold of originality, which means that it is not entitled to copyright protection. A public license can only be applied to a work if it eligible for copyright protection, so the answer is clearly "no".
However, let's assume that the text on the photographed paper is an original poem or some other literary work that is above the threshold of originality. In that case the photograph of the text is a derivative work of the original (literary) work. In that case, applying a CC license to the derivative does not retroactively enforce the license on the derivative on the original.
This should be blatantly obvious if the photograph is a photograph of somebody else's literary work.
And the law does not work differently, even if your photograph your own literary work.
Creating a derivative work requires permission from the rights holder. This is permission usually simple to obtain if both the original work (literary text) and derivative work (photo) is both created by the same person.